I spent many years trying to think of the best arguments for and against abortion. I make no claims about what policy prescriptions are appropriate relative to this argument, but I do find it hard to contend with despite my progressive political leanings.

There is a lot of confusion around life, abortion, and women's rights. It is a complex issue. Does its complexity give us direction on this tough moral question?

The moral wrongness depends on intent.Intent depends on knowledge. Acting without knowledge is negligent (immoral)Killing an innocent person is morally wrong. We are uncertain of when "personhood" begins.Abortion requires acting without knowledge.Abortion requires negligence possibly resulting in killing an innocent person.Abortion is immoral. Now, I am sure there are ways to clean this argument up, but from an apologetic perspective, here is how one would present the argument... Pro-Lifer: How certain, on a scale of 0 to 100, are you that an unborn child at 9 months gestation (days before birth) doesn't have a right to life and we can abort it? Interlocutor: 0%, of course we shouldn't abort at that point. Pro-lifer: What about 8 months, when the unborn child is still wholly viable? Interlocutor: ???% (variable based on

the interlocutor) Pro-lifer: What about 6 months.... ~ Eventually we get to the first trimester and inevitably the person might say they are 99.99% certain that the unborn child is not a person and therefor has no right to life. Pro-lifer: Ok, well, 99.99% is 1 in 10000. Imagine if I told you right now you have two choices. One, you will magically become pregnant and be forced to carry the baby to term or, two, you can take this gun and shoot it into a crowd, knowing that there is a 1 in 10,000 chance you will murder someone. Would you pull the trigger? In my experience, almost no one has supported pulling the trigger. Ultimately, many people are confused and uncertain about abortion and that confusion and uncertainty may be sufficient on its own to avoid abortion.

This was one of my first novel arguments for the existence of God. It occurred to me that most people think that our Universe is better than neutral, and by no small amount. It doesn't deny suffering, but it asks the question why should we expect a world with as much good as it has?

Is our Universe on the whole more pleasurable than not? If so, what does that tell us about its inception?

The universe is, on the whole, good relative to pain and pleasure. This is either due to chance, necessity, or design.It is not plausibly due to chance or necessity.The universe is designed. Now, defense of the premises is essential in this one, but if you are familiar with the FTA, I wanted to go ahead and point out and important feature of the argument. Premise #1 of this argument entails Premise #1 of the Fine Tuning Argument. That is to say, in order for there to even be pain and pleasure, there must be conscious creatures. The entire thrust of the Fine Tuning Argument serves as a foundation of this argument. This argument builds upon the FTA, saying that there is another feature of our Universe (pleasure) which also needs to be explained. We could have a Universe that is fine tuned for life but is miserable. At one point, I called this my "But Wait, There's More" argument because it could be run like

this... The universe is fine tuned for sentient life This is either due to chance, necessity, or design.It is not plausibly due to chance or necessity.But wait there's more, the universe is on the whole more pleasurable than painful.This is either due to chance, necessity, or design.It is not plausibly due to chance or necessityThe universe is designed Now, the crux of the Argument from Neutrality is Premise 1. My goal in defending it is not to convince a person the universe is, on the whole, more pleasurable than painful, but to demonstrate to them that they already believe that it is. The defense goes something like this… Measuring whether the universe is, on the whole, more pleasurable or painful is a seemingly difficult task. How would we go about this? We might imagine a line where on one end is the worst possible universe in terms of pain and pleasure and on the other end is…

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